Vandalia was the second capital of the state of Illinois, from 1819 to 1839. Springfield was designated in 1839 as the third capital, and has continued to be so. The capital of Illinois is Springfield, located in the central part of the state. It became the capital of Illinois in 1839 thanks to the influence of Abraham Lincoln and his group known as The Long Nine. Since Springfield was further north, but still relatively central, it was close to the Sangamon River and, perhaps most importantly, was the home of the influential Abraham Lincoln and his group known as “The Long Nine”, it was soon chosen as the capital of Illinois.
Today it is rumored that the Long Nine asked for favors to influence their move to Springfield. However, by 1832, Calhoun had lost popular favor in the north, and the city was renamed Springfield, either because it was near Spring Creek or in honor of the prosperous city of Springfield, Massachusetts, depending on who you ask. Lincoln would serve his last term as a legislature in Springfield in 1841, in the old State Capitol building. Springfield has a dense suburban environment and is a place with a wide variety of restaurants, bars, and parks.
So why is Springfield the capital of Illinois and not one of the largest cities in the state? Let's review the history of the capital of Illinois. By 1818, Illinois had joined the United States and the capital was moved to Vandalia the following year. Springfield was finally chosen as the capital of Illinois in 1837, even with a population of less than 3,000 people. It's arguably the most important building in Springfield, the impressive dome of the Illinois State Capitol, which rises 361 feet above the ground, and can be seen from just about anywhere in the city.
So, the next time someone insists that “The Windy City is the capital of Illinois,” not only will you know the right answer, but you'll also be able to explain why and how it all happened. However, in 1839 it was decided that Springfield would become the capital of Illinois thanks to the numerous promotions of people like Abraham Lincoln. He even gave his famous 1861 speech, “House Divided,” on slavery in Springfield and, to this day, the city still has its presidential library and museum, as well as its tomb in the Oak Ridge Cemetery. Vandalia didn't give up right away and fought to remain the capital, but thanks to the work of Lincoln and his group, they prevailed and chose Springfield.
The oldest story that anthropologists can refer to in Springfield, and throughout the Illinois area, is the Paelo Native Americans, who occupied small encampments around wooded areas some 10,000 years ago. Springfield had already been promoted in the early 1830s as a possible location for a new capital, long before Vandalia's 20-year contract ended.